Porn Vs Chicken (Pacific Coast Hellway Presents Book 2)


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It is difficult to select a consistent time period for describing the Indian cultures of the Andean region as a whole. Many of the tribes have long since disappeared. Some of the Indian peoples have merged with the Spanish conquerors and survive today as Mestizos, mixed both culturally and physically. Even the Indians who have survived in great numbers have had their culture decidedly modified by the years of European association. Consequently, various time periods are recognized in this description of the Highlands, in- cluding the archeological past, the time of the Conquest, the Colonial history, and the present day.

This introductory statement is concerned with the Highland region as a whole rather than with detailed description of any particular cul- ture. In terms of modern political divisions, the Highlands include the aboriginal cultures in the mountainous areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Northwest Argentina, and Chile. The western Coastal plains of Ecuador, Peru, and Chile are also covered here. The whole area is dominated by the Andes Mountains from Colombia to Chile, a strip over 3, miles 5, km.

A detailed geographic description of the Andes will be found else- where in the Handbook. See Sauer, vol.

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In a simplified general view, the Andes Mountains consist of three principal ranges running parallel, north to south in Colombia, which merge into two parallel ranges in Ecuador. In Peru this parallel arrangement is no longer found but rather shorter ranges which run diagonally. In Bolivia there are again two north-to-south ranges plus a third which cuts eastward to form the maximum width of the Andes. To the south, the Andes are represented by a single major range which separates Chile and Argentina.

From one point of view the Highlands are united geographically by the dominant Andes. Some 57 peaks extend above 17, feet 5, m. Everywhere the Andes present formidable barriers, directing migration, limiting areas of expansion. Most passes in the mountains are over 12, feet 3, m. Altitude zones are important in terms of human habitation. However, from another view the so-called Highlands include several contrasting en- vironments. Here the rainy pe- riods continue throughout most of the year, so that the higher regions of the mountains, between about 10, feet 3, m.

Here there are contrasting rainy and dry seasons, varying from 3 to 7 months in duration, so that the puna above 13, feet about 4, m. In southern Bolivia and in parts of North Chile, desert conditions exist, making still a third division pi. The Pacific Coastal plain likewise presents contrasting environ- ments, not only topographically but also climatically. Starting in southwestern Ecuador, desert conditions prevail pi. Farther south, in the Central Valley of Chile a temperate climate is found, and in southern Central Chile, down to the Island of Chiloe, the Coast is covered by rain forests pis.

In spite of the con- trast of the west Coast desert and the mountain environments, the two regions have been closely united culturally. A sharper cultural contrast existed in the Chilean Coastal region, particularly in the area of the heavy rain forest. The Amazon which flank the eastern slope of the Andes, tropics, and the tropical areas of the Caribbean Coast of Colombia, and the Pacific Coasts of Colombia and northern Ecuador have long been true cultural barriers.

In fact, the eastern expansion of the Andean cul- tures was blocked by the grass plains of Patagonia and the Pampas and the tropical forests of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Vene- zuela. Within the Highland area there are few barriers of importance.

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By modern transportation standards, based on railroads and automobile highways, the high mountain ranges present many problems, but in terms of the indigenous cultures, based essentially on travel by foot or with llamas and alpacas, the mountain barriers were not insur- mountable. In fact, within itself the Highland region was one of comparative mobility, the chief limiting factor being distance. Furthermore, the Patagonian evidence sug- gests that these were land Indians and not canoe users.

Land hunters who entered South America via the Isthmus of Panama would probably proceed up the Atrato, Magdalena, and Cauca Rivers of Colombia, which lead from north to south back into the Andes. The dense jungles of the Pacific Coast of Colombia and Ecuador would probably not be attractive to land hunters without good knowledge of canoe transportation.

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In any case, a hunting pattern adapted to Andean conditions would undoubtedly progress with considerable rapidity south from Colombia through the moun- tains and then spread to the more favorable hunting region of the Chaco, the Pampa, and Patagonia. Moreover, the varied environ- mental zones in the Andes and the corresponding variations in flora and fauna might well have supported land hunters for a considerable time. Direct evidence for such early migrations is meager in the Andean region. About , at Punin, Ecuador, a human skull was found embedded in a volcanic-ash layer which also contained such Pleisto- cene fauna as ground sloth, mastodon, horse, deer, and camel.

See Collier, this volume, , and McCown, Handbook, vol. No artifacts were associated, but the long-headed low skull is some- what like other early fossil finds from Lagoa Santa, Brazil. At another site in Ecuador remains of a mastodon were found in associa- tion with human artifacts, although the significance of this association has not yet been satisfactorily explained. Along the Coast of Perti are enormous shell heaps, presumably built up by an early fishing popula- tion, although so far little archeological work has been done in these sites.

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In North Chile, however, somewhat similar shell heaps have produced evidence of two periods of preagriculture occupation. See Bird, this volume, pp. Future discoveries will undoubtedly increase the knowledge of these early migrants. However, the typical Andean culture pattern is based on the domestication of plants, whether by the early migrants or by peoples who entered the region Jo 'fp'p. Many areas in the Highlands meet most of these requirements.

Furthermore, isolated mountain farms allow for the diversification and selection of plants. It is probable that some important species were first domesticated in the Andean Highlands. As the entire problem of plant domesti The Highlands became the great center of intensive agriculture in South America. The agricultural practices had passed beyond the exploitative stage and reached the point where soils were protected from erosion and systematically built up with fertilizers for maximum utilization.

All sections of the Highlands did not achieve this high development of agriculture, but intensive cultivation is nonetheless the basic characteristic of the Andean pattern. It is in these terms, then, that the over-all pattern which distinguished the Highlands from other regions of South America must be defined. Table 1. Maize Zea mays All areas. Lupine Lupinus tauris Highlands. Chenopodium quinoa Highlands. Cafiahua Chenopodium pallidicaule Highlands. Amaranth Amaranthus sp Highlands.

Scarlet runner or ayecote Phaseolus multiflorus or coccineus Cauca River. Lima Phaseolus lunatus Coast. Jack Canavalia ensiformis Coast. Soursop Annona muricata. Potato Highlands. Oca Highlands. Ulluco Highlands. Mashua Achira Canna edulis Coast; temperate valleys. Arracacha Arracacia xanthonhiza or esculenta. Temperate valleys. Sweet manioc yuca Manihot utilissima Tropical lowlands. Peanut Sweet potato Jpomoea batatas Tropical lowlands.

Peppers, aji Capsicum annuum Medium climates. Cacao, chocolate bean Theobroma cacao Cotton Gossypium hirsutum var.


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Erythroxylon coca Warm valleys. An accurate estimate of the contemporary Indian pop- ulation is difficult to secure since the designation "Indian" is as much cultural, linguistic, and economic as it is physical.


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  • An estimate by Rosenblatt covers some of the countries, based on his analysis of the census figures for the year Highland Indian population in Indian Mestizo Total Colombia , 3,, 4,, Ecuador , , 1,, Peril 3,, 1,, 5,, Bolivia 1,, 1,, 3,, Total 6,, 6,, 13,, That these totals will be somewhat modified in the light of more recent counts is indicated by the census in Peru, which lists 2,, Indians out of a total population of 7,, Brand b has made a careful estimate of the contemporary Indian groups in Chile, with the following results:.

    Total , Forbes , pp. A recent manuscript by La Barre estimates about , Aymara for the year It would appear, then, that a conservative estimate of the Indians in the Andean Highland region today would be 6,, It is also significant that the Indian pop- ulation, although less than one-quarter of the total for the Andean area, is concentrated in inhabitable sections of the mountains of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and in south Middle Chile.

    Accurate estimates of the Indian population in the Highlands at the time of the Spanish Conquest are extremely difficult to secure. Vari- ous authors have suggested figures ranging from 3,, to 32,,- , although there is no justification for the latter. In spite of the fact that in the past years many Indians have been either elimi- nated or absorbed in the Mestizo population, it cannot be directly inferred that the number of Indians at the time of the Conquest was the same or greater than the present census figures indicate.

    In fact, Kubler see this volume, pp.

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    Similar decrease and subsequent increase has also been shown for Mexico and Central America. The earliest official count of the Indian population in Peru and Bolivia was made in and indicated a total of 1,, This figure is accepted as reasonably reliable by many authors, although they may disagree as to the extent of population loss during the 30 preceding years of active Spanish conquest.

    Kubler pp. Howe see this volume, p. Equally detailed evidence is not available for other parts of the Andean region. For Colombia, Kroeber has estimated about , Chibcha at the time of the Conquest, with an absolute maximum of , But see p. This is in startling contrast to many authors who claim at least 1,, Chibcha. In view of the fact that the Chibcha were the only truly sedentary, concentrated popu- lation of Colombia, the total Indian population of that country at the time of the Conquest could not have been large.

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